My Grammar

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  • Chart of verb tenses.

Chart 1 - Chart 2 (English) - Chart 3 (Spanish) - Chart 4 (Infographics) - Chart 5 (video)

  • Which auxiliary verbs must I use? TO BE, TO DO or TO HAVE?

Chart 1

  • List of irregular verbs.

List by types

  • Verbs + TO (infinitive) or -ING (gerund).

Chart 1



    • TO BE: Present simple

Grammar (PDF)

    • TO HAVE: Present simple

Grammar (PDF)

  • TO HAVE GOT: Present simple

Grammar (PDF)

  • How do we form the PRESENT SIMPLE? (Characteristics, auxiliary verb, uses, signal words,...)

Grammar (PDF) - Grammar (video Canva) - Grammar review (Coogle) - Grammar (Card)

Grammar (Slideshare-1) - Grammar (Slideshare-2)

  • Differences between PRESENT SIMPLE and PRESENT CONTINUOUS.

Grammar 1 (PDF) - Grammar 2 (video)



  • TO BE: Past simple

Grammar (PDF)

  • How do we form the PAST SIMPLE (regular and irregular verbs)? (Characteristics, auxiliary verb, uses, signal words,...)

Grammar (PDF) - Grammar (video Canva) - Grammar (PDF Coggle)

  • Pronunciation of the suffix -ED in regular verbs (past simple and past participle).

Chart 1 (Canva) - Grammar - Video

  • Differences between PAST SIMPLE and PAST CONTINUOUS.

Grammar 1 (chart)

  • Differences between PAST SIMPLE and PRESENT PERFECT.

Grammar 1 (chart)



  • How do we form the PRESENT CONTINUOUS? (Characteristics, auxiliary verb, uses, signal words,...)

Grammar (PDF)

  • Differences between PRESENT CONTINUOUS and PRESENT SIMPLE.

Grammar 1 (chart)


  • How do we form the PAST CONTINUOUS? (Characteristics, auxiliary verb, uses, signal words,...)

Grammar 1 (PDF)

  • Differences between PAST CONTINUOUS and PAST SIMPLE.

Grammar 1 (chart)


  • How do we form the PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS (regular and irregular verbs)? (Characteristics, auxiliary verb, uses)

Grammar 1 (PDF)



  • How do we form the PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE (regular and irregular verbs)? (Characteristics, auxiliary verb, uses, signal words,...)

Grammar 1 (PDF)

  • Differences between PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE and PAST SIMPLE.

Grammar 1 (PDF) - Grammar 2 (PDF)


  • How do we form the PAST PERFECT SIMPLE (regular and irregular verbs)? (Characteristics, auxiliary verb, uses)

Grammar 1 (PDF)


  • How do we form the PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS (regular and irregular verbs)? (Characteristics, auxiliary verb, uses)

Grammar 1 (PDF)


  • Future of intention: TO BE GOING TO

Grammar (PDF) - Video 1 (English) - Video 2 (Spanish)

  • Future simple: WILL / WON'T

Grammar (PDF) - Video (Spanish)

  • Differences between FUTURE SIMPLE (will) and FUTURE OF INTENTION (to be going to).

Grammar 1 (PDF) -


Grammar 1 (Canva) -




Zero conditional (video) - First conditional (video) - Second conditional (video) - Third conditional (video)













~ A or AN?

-A and AN are indefinite articles. The indefinite article refers to a non-specific object or person.

-Both A and AN mean the same: "un", "una". The plural form is SOME and the meaning is "unos", "unas".

-We use A when the word starts with consonant or consonant sound.

Examples: A bird ................ Some birds

A kite ................. Some kites

A helicopter ....... Some helicopters

A horse .............. Some horses

A hospital .......... Some hospitals

A university ........ Some universities

A hot glass of milk ...... Some hot glasses of milk

A hard exercise ........... Some hard exercises

-We use AN before words that start with a vowel or vowel sound.

Examples: An ant ............ Some ants

An ostrich ....... Some ostriches

An elevator ..... Some elevators

An umbrella .... Some umbrellas

An hour ........... Some hours

An easy exercise ........ Some easy exercises

An ugly picture .......... Some ugly pictures

-We use the indefinites articles A / AN with:

  • The first time of something ......... "There is a fly in my soup".

  • One or any ........... "I need a pencil".

  • Some quantities .......... "A couple of", "a little", "a few", ...

  • Jobs ........... "I am a teacher", "She is a student".

  • Exclamations in singular ............ "What a beautiful day!", "What an ugly house!".


ACROSS and THROUGH are two words that serve as prepositions. As prepositions, they indicate direction, position, and movement of an object from one place to another.

across = A través de, de un lado a otro, transversalmente.

* ACROSS is used to describe movement on or over a certain surface.

* ACROSS infers a transverse movement which only includes the exterior or outside space.

* It has the sense of " to cross" (a surface, a river, a street ...). Indicates movement on a "flat" surface.


  • We walked across the desert.

  • At that moment, Jennifer was walking across the road.

THROUGH = A través de, por, por medio de.

* THROUGH is a word used to describe movement in three-dimensional space. In addition, expressing movement, it indicates the entrance of an object into one side and out of the other side of an opening, channel, or location.

* It has the sense of "going through", "passing through" (a window, a forest, a crowd , a door, ...). Indicates movement across a "three-dimensional" surface.


  • They drove through the tunnel.

  • The men were walking through the forest when they met a wolf.


AFTER = Después, después de; detrás, detrás de.

* It is used to indicate that something has happened "after" a certain moment (location in time).


  • After a storm comes a calm.

* It is also used indicating movement, with the sense of "to follow", "to pursue".


  • The police are after the thief.

BEHIND = Detrás de.

* It is used to indicate that the position of a person or object is "behind" another (location in space).


  • The museum is behind the park.

  • Behind every great man there is a surprised woman.


AGENDA = Orden del día.

* It is the "order of the day" or "list of topics" to be discussed in a meeting.


  • The secret of your success is determined by your daily agenda.

  • What's the agenda for today's meeting?

DIARY = Agenda (personal), diario.

* It is a diary (agenda) or "personal organizer", whose pages are generally divided into the different days of the year, and which is used as a reminder of appointments and tasks to be carried out or as an activity planner.


  • Craig always buy a new diary at the beginning of each year.

-It also means "diary" (the book where a person periodically collects her personal experiences).


  • Anne Frank's diary made a very big impression on me.


ALL = "Todo", "Toda"; "Todos", "Todas".

* It does not usually appear as a subject or as a complement by itself. (In this case it is better to use "everything").


Right: Everything is fine. Wrong: All is fine.

We like everything. We like all.

* It is not usually used in front of the indeterminate article (A/AN).

* They are often used with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns.


  • He drank all the water.

  • He drank all the glasses of water.

WHOLE = "Todo", "Toda", "Todo entero", "Por completo".

* It is often used with countable nouns in singular.


  • When the whole world is silent, even one voice becomes powerful.

  • The breaking of a wave cannot explain the whole sea.

EVERYTHING = "Todo", "Toda", "Todas las cosas".

* It can be used as a subject or complement of the sentence.


  • Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better.

  • Family is not an important thing. It's everything.

~ ALSO or TOO?

ALSO = "También".

* It is used more in written language. In common language, "too" or "as well" are more used.

* "Also" usually occupies a place in the sentence next to the verb.


  • People don't seen to realize that their opinion of the world is also a confession of character.

  • When you look into an abyss, the abyss also looks into you.

TOO = "También"; "Demasiado".

* TOO usually goes at the end of the sentence when the meaning is "también".


  • I am very happy and my sister too.

  • She wants an ice-cream and a milkshake too.

* When the meaning is "demasiado", TOO goes before the adjective to highlight the intensity or the meaning of the adjective.


  • Jack is too young to drive a car.

  • The milk is too hot.

~ AS or LIKE?

AS = "Como", "mientras", "cuando".

* It is a comparative in the sense of "equivalent to" ("equivalente a").


  • She works as a secretary. (Ella trabaja como secretaria = Su profesión es secretaria)

  • He started working as a techar ten years ago.

  • I use one of the rooms in my house as an office.

LIKE = "Como"; "mientras", "cuando".

* It has the meaning of "as" (comparative in the sense of equivalence, reference, example). It would be equivalent to: "as if it were ..." ("como si fuera ...").


  • She works like a secretary. (Trabaja como una secretaria = Trabaja como si fuera una secretaria.

(She is not necessarily a secretary, she can be, for example, a teacher, however, within her functions she performs administrative work outside of her teaching work).


Grammar 1

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

· Nouns can be:

· Common or proper

· Countable or uncountable

· We classify in the group of countable nouns all the nouns that form individual elements by themselves and that can form group with other elements of the same type and therefore can be enumerated. That is to say:

~ They have singular and plural.

Ex.: Table - Tables

~ They can be counted.

Ex.: One table – Two tables – Three tables - …

~ Before the countable noun we can put the indefinite article A / AN.

Ex.: A table / A glass / A teacher / A house / A hospital

An orange / An apple / An ant / An octopus / An hour / An animal

· We classify in the group of uncountable nouns the nouns that include all substances and materials and also the "abstract" qualities. That is to say:

~ They only have singular.

Ex.: Water – Waters / sugar – sugars / air – airs

~ They cannot be counted.

Ex.: One water – Two waters Three waters

~ Before the countable noun we cannot put the indefinite article A / AN.

Ex.: A water / A sugar / A milk / A butter

An air / An oil / An aggression / An art / An advertising

Examples of uncountable nouns:

Salt, sugar, water, wood, iron, silver, wine, poverty, wealth, music, money (in generic terms, not the coins or bills), glass (material), sound, happiness, sadness, freedom, bread, cheese, honey, coffee, beauty, beef, fruit, love, luggage, furniture, traffic, cake, motivation, tea, seafood, soup, weather, snow, plastic, …

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Note.- If you put something on a table and you can count it, the noun is countable. On the contrary, if you put it on a table and you cannot count it by itself, the noun is uncountable. It is impossible to know how much there is.

Uncountable nouns need a container/packaging to be counted (glass, bottle, plate, bag, package, ...), while countable nouns are counted without the necessity to put them in a container.


GOOD = Bueno/a, buen, útil, provechoso/a, ventajoso/a, amable, sano.

* GOOD is an adjective and, for this reason, its place is always before the noun it accompanies.


  • He is a good boy. (Él es un buen chico)

  • Today I feel good. (Hoy me siento bien / Estoy feliz)

  • Fruit is a good food. (La fruta es un buen alimento / La fruta es un alimento sano/saludable/bueno)

  • The good life is one inspired by love. (La buena vida es la que se inspira en el amor)

  • A good head and a good heart are always a formidable combination. (Una buena cabeza y un buen corazón son siempre una formidable combinación)

WELL = Bien.

* WELL is an adverb. Its usual position in the sentence is behind the verb it accompanies.


  • You speak English well.

  • Work well and you will pass your exam.

  • She dances very well.

~ IN or ON?


* English speakers use IN (en, dentro de) to refer to a general, longer period of time, such as months, years, decades, or centuries and some moments of the day ("in the morning", "in the afternoon", "in the evening", but "AT night").

For example, we say: “in April,” “in 2015” or “in the 21st century".

* Moving to shorter, more specific periods of time, we use ON (en, sobre, encima de) to talk about particular days, dates and holidays.

For example, we say: on holidays” , “on Monday” or “on the 3rd August 1492".


* We use IN when you are indicating a position for spaces with limitations. IN is used to say that something is contained or inside.


  • The bee is in the beehive.

  • He mail in the mailbox.

  • The file is in the disk.

* ON is used to denote a position for surfaces or a position just above or outside an area.


  • The book is placed on the table.

  • Charlie sat on the bench.

  • Jane has a tattoo on his arm.


ON = En, sobre, encima de. (Con contacto físico)

* Definition: Having covered something; part of the surface.

* A simple definition of ON is one thing that is covering another. Generally, it touches the other object or its surface.


  • Write it down on a piece of paper.

  • Sit on the chair.

  • I put on the latest pair of jeans, which I bought last week.

Over = Sobre, encima de, por encima de, por arriba, arriba. (Sin contacto físico)

* Definition: Covering; on top of.

* ON is used when one thing covers another or lays on the top of it. Although, this definition matches the definition of ON and ON often replaces OVER when it’s used to convey ‘on top of ’.

* In addition, when you say OVER, it conveys a sense of movement as well as a sense of covering a larger area.


          • The plane flies over the sea. (Suggesting movement)

          • Put the cream over the cake.

          • Sit over there.

ABOVE = Arriba, por encima de, sobre. (Sin contacto físico)

* Definition: In a higher place. ‘Over’ is also used in place of it.

* ABOVE is usually used when you want to say that something is higher than another object. Moreover, it also hints of a certain position. There is no movement, only position.


  • The temple is above the hill.

  • The king sits above the rest of his courtiers.

  • A Manager is above an Assistant Manager.


In the past, persons referred to a specific number of individuals. Meanwhile, people was used to refer more generally to large groups, or groups whose size was not specified.

Today, people has largely replaced persons in all contexts, outside of a few set phrases. You can remember to reserve persons for small groups of a specific number of people and legal context.


The plural of PERSON is PEOPLE . PEOPLE is used in reference to any group of two or more individuals.


  • There is a person in the park.

  • There are a lot of people in the shopping centre.

We use PERSONS when we refer to the verbal persons and in formal and legal contexts.


  • First singular person: I.

  • Third singular persons: he / she / it.